Volume 7, Issue 3, June 2019, Page: 56-67
Evaluation of Different Anthropogenic Effluents Impacts on the Water Quality Using Principal Component Analysis: A Case Study of Abu-Qir Bay-Alexandria-Egypt
Mohammed Attia Shreadah, Marine Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt
Abeer Abdel-Mohsen Mohamed El-Sayed, Marine Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt
Asia Abdel Samea Taha, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Abdel-Monem Mohamed Ahmed, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Hanaa Hamam Abdel Rahman, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Received: Aug. 6, 2019;       Accepted: Aug. 27, 2019;       Published: Sep. 17, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijema.20190703.11      View  42      Downloads  15
Abstract
Background: The growing increase in Egyptian population, as well as urbanization expansion; lead to a corresponding increase in industrial, agriculture, urban effluents that discharged into the aquatic environment of Egypt. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the alteration occurred in some water quality characteristics of different water bodies subjected to different types of pollutants. Methods: Different physicochemical parameters, nutrient salts, total dissolved copper, and total dissolved carbohydrate were measured according to advanced experimental methods and analytical techniques. Results: The results of the hydrochemical parameters revealed that the temperature ranges for Abu-Qir drain waste water and Abu-Qir Bay seawater were normal. The values of salinity for waste water and seawater were (0.19-0.43‰) and (30.2-32.2‰), respectively which are much lower than that of the Mediterranean seawater (38.50‰) due to the discharge of huge amounts of fresh waters into Abu-Qir Bay. The pH values varied from one drain to another according to the geographical position and the amount of waste waters discharged into the area. Dissolved oxygen for waste water and seawater are ranged from a complete depletion to 9.42 mg/l and from 4.53to 4.87mg/l, respectively. On the meantime the range values of oxidizable organic matter for waste water and seawater were 21.6-84.0mg/l and 14.4-42.4mg/l, respectively reflecting the high loads of organic matters added into Abu-Qir drain from different companies. On the other hand, the range values of ammonia varied between 10.20 and 95.6μM for waste water and between 7.50 and 10.10μM for seawater; respectively leading to eutrophication problems in the Bay. The nitrite for waste water and seawater were 2.60-32.40μM and 5.33-6.30μM, respectively, while the range values of nitrate for waste water and seawater were 0.74-36.74μM and 3.51-13.51μM; respectively. The range values of phosphate for waste water were 3.36-21.36μM, while it was 1.30-11.62μM for seawater. It is found that the amount of phosphate in the seawater is small compared to that of waste waters. Generally speaking, the waste and seawaters of the investigated area exhibited high silicate concentrations. Dissolved copper concentrations in Abu-Qir drain and Abu-Qir Bay ranged from 2.80 to 11.58μg/l and from 4.80 to 5.68μg/l; respectively. The range values of TDCHO for wastewater was 0.16-0.92μg/l and for seawater was 0.77-3.15μg/l. Conclusion: It is concluded from factor analysis (FA) that the investigated hydrochemical parameters are the major controlling factors in the distribution patterns of copper and TDCHO in both Abu-Qir drain and Abu-Qir Bay affecting seriously their water quality.
Keywords
Anthropogenic Impacts, Water Quality, Principal Component Analysis, Abu-Qir Bay
To cite this article
Mohammed Attia Shreadah, Abeer Abdel-Mohsen Mohamed El-Sayed, Asia Abdel Samea Taha, Abdel-Monem Mohamed Ahmed, Hanaa Hamam Abdel Rahman, Evaluation of Different Anthropogenic Effluents Impacts on the Water Quality Using Principal Component Analysis: A Case Study of Abu-Qir Bay-Alexandria-Egypt, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp. 56-67. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20190703.11
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Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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