Volume 8, Issue 6, December 2020, Page: 187-192
Natural Radioactivity Level of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in Baby Food and Committed Annual Effective Dose Assessment in Bangladesh
Khadiza Begam, Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, USA
Mohammad Moshiur Rahman, Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Mohammad Alamgir Kabir, Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, USA
Umma Tamim, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Syed Mohammod Hossain, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Afia Begum, Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Received: Oct. 8, 2020;       Accepted: Oct. 24, 2020;       Published: Nov. 4, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijema.20200806.12      View  157      Downloads  54
Worldwide, the contagion of chronic diseases like diabetes and cancer among children has made the nutritionists thoughtful. Food contamination with radioactivity, became a severe health threat for children below five since they are under developing immune systems and cannot fight off infections like adults. Radioactivity concentrated in food chain may be transferred to human body and increase the cumulative risk of developing cancer and some other diseases. Therefore the assessment of radioactivity levels in baby food and their associated doses are of crucial importance for health safety. The study is focused on the radiation contamination of baby food due to the nuclear disasters and make public awareness about infant’s nutrition followed by the health safety. The natural radioactivity level due to 238U, 232Th and 40K in baby food (cereals and powder milk) samples, marketed in Bangladesh were estimated and annual effective dose was assessed. Gamma spectrometry was performed by HPGe detector coupled with MCA, and certified reference materials were used for quantification and quality control. The average concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K were found to be 5.42±0.42, 5.71±0.50 and 334.4±12 Bq.Kg-1 in milk sample and 2.98±0.38, 3.94±0.29 and 155.7±7.5 Bq.Kg-1 in cereal sample respectively. The committed effective doses due to ingestion of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K) from the consumption of milk and cereals for age group <1 year were 1.30 and 0.51 mSv/yr and for age group 1-2 year were 0.31 and 0.15 mSv/yr respectively. The age group < 1yr, who are completely depend on formula milk are under highly threat since their annual effective dose 1.30 mSv/yr exceeds the recommended permissible limit of 1 mSv/yr. The data generated in this study will provide base-line radiometric values of activity concentration and annual effective dose attributed from baby foods in Bangladesh.
MCA, HPGe Detector, NaI (TI) Detector, Natural Radioactivity, Effective Dose, Radio-nuclides
To cite this article
Khadiza Begam, Mohammad Moshiur Rahman, Mohammad Alamgir Kabir, Umma Tamim, Syed Mohammod Hossain, Afia Begum, Natural Radioactivity Level of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in Baby Food and Committed Annual Effective Dose Assessment in Bangladesh, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 8, No. 6, 2020, pp. 187-192. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20200806.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
UNSCEAR, “ United Nations Scientific Commitee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation'Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation',” Report to the General Assembly, United Nations, Newwork, 2000.
R. E. Rowland, “Low-level Radium Retention by the Human Body: A Modification of the ICRP Publication 20 Retention Equation,” Health Physics, vol. 65, p. 507, 1993.
J. Stenson, “Health and Willness,” 2019. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 12 June 2020].
B. Curley, “,” 2019. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 12 June 2020].
A. W. R. Lupien J. R., “FAO Recommended Limits for Radionuclide Contamination of Food,” in Radionuclides in the Food Chain, G. S. John H. Harley Gail D. Schmidt, Ed., London, Springer, 1988, p. 389.
G. V. B. M. V. A. B. P. a. M. O. Svetlana Grddovic, “Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity of feedstuffs, mosses and soil in the Belgrade environment, Serbia,” Archives of Biological Sciences, vol. 62, no. 2, p. 301, 2010.
G. E. Shamsuddoha A. K., “Dairy Industry in Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects,” Sydney, Australia, 2000.
Annual Report, IAEA, “The International chernobyl Project: Assessment of Radiological Consequences,” IAEA, Viena, 2012.
D. S. P. G. S. Thomas, “Thomas, D., SebasCalculated Fatalities from Radiation: A food watch Report,” German Society for Radiation Protection, Berlin, 2011.
G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and measurement, 2nd ed., Newyork, USA: John Wiley and sons, 1989.
R. S. N. 2. IAEA, “Measurement of radionuclides in food and the environment, A guide Book, Technical Report Series No. 295,” IAEA, Vienna, 1989.
A. M. M. A. K. K. A. Rahman M. Moshiur, “Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels and Radiological Significance of Bottled Drinking Water in Bangladesh,” American Journal of Physics and Applications, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 203-207, 2015.
M. A. Zain, “Assessment of Natural radionuclides in Powdered milk Consumed in Saudi Arabia and Estimates of the,” Journal of American Science, vol. 9, no. 6, p. 267, 2013.
ICRP, “Age-dependent dose to members of the public from intake of radionuclides: Part 5 compilation of ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients,” Annals of the ICRP, 1996.
A. B. Mehrnia M. A., “Evaluation of Toxic Element Contents in Infant Foods Commercially Available in Iran,” Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 249-253, 2014.
D. T. M. &. S. G. Das, “Infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh,” Indian J Pediatr, vol. 59, no., p. 573–577, 1992.
H. M. N. L. L. B. Dewey KG, “Maternal versus infant factors related to breast milk intake and residual milk volume,” Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Lonnerdal B. Maternal versus infanthe DARLING study. Pediatrics, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 829-837, 1991.
K. Bonyata, “ Breastfeeding and Parenting,” 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 13 08 2020].
M. A. O. M. U. K. Y. M. A. D. B. M. A. a. K. A. Onosohwo Bemigho Uwatse, “Measurement of Natural and Artificial Radioactivity in Infant Powdered Milk and Estimation of the Corresponding Annual Effective Dose,” Environmental Engineering Science, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 838-846, 2015.
J. H. Al-Zahrani, “ Natural radioactivity and heavy metalsin milk consumed in Saudi Arabia and population dose rateestimates,” Life Science Journal, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 651-656, 2012.
F. A. C. Melquiades, “ Radiation ofpowdered milk produced at Londrina, PR, Brazil.,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 61, no. 3-6, p. 691, 2001.
F. a. A. C. Melquiades, “(2002). 40K, 137Cs and 232Th activities Brazilian milk samples measured by gammaray spectrometry,” Indian Journal of Pure and Appllied Physics., vol. 40, p. 5, 2002.
A. A. A. K. A. A. Ababneh ZQ, “Ababneh ZQ, Alyassin AM, Aljarrah KM, Ababneh AM. Measurement of natural and artificial radioactivity in powdered milk consumed in Jordan and estimates of the corresponding annual effective dose,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 138, no. 3, p. 278, 2010.
K. J. R. G. a. M. C. Shanthi G., “ Natural radionuclides in the South Indian foods andtheir annual dose,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., vol. 619, p. 436, 2010.
O. O. J. T. P. a. B. F. Osibote, “(1999). Radioactivity in milk consumed in Nigeria 10 years afterChernobyl reactor accident,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, vol. A 422, pp. 778-783, 1999.
BAEC, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Cornmission: “Nuclear Safety & Radiation Control Rules - 1997,” Bangladesh Gadget, Dhaka, 1997.
Browse journals by subject